Settler Colonialism and Extractive Dependency: Reflections on a visit to the Algonquins of Barriere Lake territory
By: Sydney Lang
On Wednesday, March 23, I visited Mitchikanibikok Inik, or the Algonquins of Barriere Lake (ABL) territory, as a part of a human rights delegation working on mining justice issues. Although I only visited the 59-acre reserve that the federal government forced the community onto, the community maintains over 10,000 square kilometers of territory. While on the reserve, I heard stories and saw firsthand the implications of extraction and energy within a settler colonial context, and the ways that this controls Indigenous peoples and their territory.
This firsthand experience stressed the past and present dimensions of settler colonialism. Historically, colonial governments and Indigenous peoples signed treaties for the sake of development. Land was needed to support the settler population and natural resources were desired as a source of wealth. Of course, the historical links between extraction and colonialism are not uniquely Canadian; they have roots in Europe’s colonization of Africa and the Americas. Colonial violence against African peoples took the form of forced mining labour, displacement, and slavery. Here, humans themselves were extracted, from Africa to the Americas, in the name of colonialism and resource extraction. As Eduardo Galeano writes in Open Veins of Latin America, this both dislocated agricultural communities, destroyed the collective farming system, and took many lives.
Throughout recent history, Indigenous peoples have been forced onto small reserves, often far from territory in which they have spiritual ties, for the sake of development and extraction. When extraction is set to take place on Indigenous territory, the Canadian government, as established through Canadian case law, has a duty to consult and accommodate Indigenous peoples. However, this duty does not require consent from Indigenous peoples. This exists in tension with UNDRIP’s requirement for the government to receive free, prior, and informed consent from Indigenous peoples before moving forward with development on their territory. It is also important to note that extraction is not limited to natural resources. The settler colonial project extracts and exploits labour, culture, knowledge, and autonomy, although this does not fit within pre-established case law.
For many years logging has occurred on the Mitchikanibikok Inik territory I visited. As we walked through the reserve, we noticed a small pile of logs; the government leaves a pile every year for heating. This wood was logged on ABL territory and is the extent of resource revenue sharing by the government.
The ABL sought to address issues of extraction and resource revenue sharing by negotiating a Trilateral Agreement with the Canadian and Quebec governments in 1991. Although many recommendations were adopted under this agreement, resource extraction continues. In 2006, the community put forward a list of seven demands to be negotiated with the government of Quebec. Although Quebec accepted six of them, including co-management of renewable resources, they suspended negotiations in 2006 over a refusal to share resource revenue with the community.
Recently, a junior mining company called Copper One began prospecting on the territory and found large deposits of copper. This mine could have disastrous effects on the community and surrounding wildlife, as the mining claim covers 300 square kilometers and includes part of the La Vérendrye wildlife reserve. Neither the Quebec government, nor the company, informed or consulted the Algonquins of Barriere Lake before granting Copper One a mineral claim on their territories. The community takes a strong “no mining” stance, and have put their bodies on the line to prove it with the creation of a land protection camp. Although the government claims that it will temporarily suspend Copper One’s claims to the territory, the future of this project remains uncertain.
The community backs onto a hydroelectric dam reservoir, owned by Hydro Quebec. This has created dangerous conditions for the community. Norman Matchewan, Band Councillor, told us that when it was first installed, the community was not warned when the corporation would be releasing water from the dam. As a result, two elders drowned from falling through the thin ice. Although the dam powers neighbouring communities, Hydro Quebec has not connected the reserve to the grid. This is another one of the community’s recommendations to the government of Quebec: the electrification of Rapid Lake.
Instead, the government has supplied the community with diesel generators. As we walked by the generators, we could smell the diesel. Norman told us that it isn’t unusual for the smell to reach the entire community when it’s windy. He also said that the generators are prone to breaking down, sometimes remaining unfixed for days. The community both relies on these generators for electricity, yet is also limited by them, as they are used at capacity and restrict the community from building much needed infrastructure. The generators supplied by the government both contribute to the community’s precariousness and force them to use unsustainable forms of energy that are polluting their land.
The Algonquins of Barriere Lake have endured colonial extraction in many forms, yet remain strong with their demands. Although the Canadian government has not yet recognized Indigenous peoples’ right to say “no” to development projects on their territory, enforcing the Trilateral Agreement and other integrated resource management plans and recommendations would act as a strong first step towards addressing histories of settler colonial violence through extraction and land use.
Interested in learning more about settler colonialism and extraction in Canada? We suggest these selected articles from our past issues:
6:2 Access to Justice: The Impact of Injunction, Contempt of Court Proceedings, and Costs Awards on Environmental Protestors and First Nations
8:1 Exploring the Mining “Money Trail”: Assessing British Columbia’s mining Tax Regime and Unearthing Legal Tools that Foster Greater Returns for Local Communities
11:2 Tsilhqot’in Nation as a Gateway Towards Sustainability: Applying the Inherent Limit to Crown Land
These articles are referenced as suggested reading. It should not be taken to imply their authors share the views expressed above.