fall 2018

‡ what is software ⌈⇒post⌉

Kay, Alan. “Computer Software.” Scientific American 251, no. 3 (September 1984): 52–59.
Burnham, Jack. “Notes on Art and Information Processing.” In Software Information Technology Its New Meaning for Art, 10-15. New York, NY: Jewish Museum, 1970.
Fuller, Matthew, ed. “Introduction.” In Software Studies: A Lexicon, 1-15. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 2008. [* required reading 2–9]
Easterling, Keller. “A-Ware.” Journal of Architectural Education (1984-) 56, no. 2 (2002): 3–4.
Mahoney, M. S. “What Makes the History of Software Hard.” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 30, no. 3 (July 2008): 8–18. https://doi.org/10.1109/MAHC.2008.55.

‡ function ¦ program ⌈⇒post⌉

Robinson, Derek. “Functions and Logic.” In Software Studies: A Lexicon, edited by Matthew Fuller, 105–7. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 2008.
Mitchell, William J. “Function.” In The Logic of Architecture: Design, Computation, and Cognition,183-209. Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press, 1990.
Alexander, Christopher. “The Program.” In Notes on the Synthesis of Form, 73-84. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1964.
Cross, Nigel. “Computer Synthesis.” In The Automated Architect, 33-40. London: Pion Ltd, 1977.
Vidler, Anthony. “Toward a Theory of the Architectural Program.” October (October 1, 2003): 59–74. https://doi.org/10.1162/016228703322791025.

‡ form ¦ formalism ⌈⇒post⌉

Parisi, Luciana. “Preface: Weird Formalism.” In Contagious Architecture : Computation, Aesthetics, and Space. Technologies of Lived Abstraction. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 2013.
Simon, Herbert A. “The Science of Design. Creating the Artificial.” In The Sciences of the Artificial. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996.
March, Lionel. “A Boolean Description of a Class of Built Forms”, In The Architecture of Form, edited by Lionel March, 41-72. Cambridge Urban and Architectural Studies. London: Cambridge University Press, 1976. [* browse technical details]
Mitchell, William J. “Languages of Architectural Form.” In The Logic of Architecture: Design, Computation, and Cognition, 132-181. Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press, 1990. [*required reading 132-28 and 179-81]
Kaji-O’Grady, Sandra. “Formalism and Forms of Practice.” In The SAGE Handbook of Architectural Theory, 152–64. London: SAGE Publications Ltd, 2012. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446201756.

‡ language ¦ syntax ⌈⇒post⌉

Jameson, Fredric. “The Linguistic Model.” In The Prison-House of Language: A Critical Account of Structuralism and Russian Formalism. Princeton University Press, 1975.
Porter, William Lyman. “Introduction.” In The Development of DISCOURSE: A Language for Computer Assisted City Design, 1-19. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1969.
Alexander, Christopher. “Systems Generating Systems.” Architectural Design 38 (December 1968): 605–8.
Patin, Thomas. “From Deep Structure to an Architecture in Suspense: Peter Eisenman, Structuralism, and Deconstruction.” Journal of Architectural Education 47, no. 2 (1993): 88–100. https://doi:10.2307/1425170.
Dutta, Arindam. “Linguistics, Not Grammatology: Architecture’s A Prioris and Architecture’s Priorities.” In A Second Modernism: MIT, Architecture, and the “techno-Social” Moment, edited by Arindam Dutta, 01–72. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2013. [* required reading TBA]

‡ code ¦ script ⌈⇒post⌉

Kittler, Friedrich. “Code.” In Software Studies: A Lexicon, edited by Matthew Fuller, 40–47. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 2008.
Geoghegan, Bernard Dionysius. “From Information Theory to French Theory: Jakobson, Lévi-Strauss, and the Cybernetic Apparatus”. Critical Inquiry 38, no. 1 (September 2011): 96-126. https://doi.org/10.1086/661645. [* required reading 96–104 and 121-126]
McCullough, Malcolm. “Scripting (2006).” In The Digital Turn in Architecture 1992–2012, 182–87. Wiley-Blackwell, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118795811.ch12.
R Galloway, Alexander, and Eugene Thacker. “Language, Life, Code.” Architectural Design 76, no. 5 (2006): 26–29. https://doi.org/10.1002/ad.317.
Carpo, Mario. “Digital Style.” Log, no. 23 (2011): 41–52.

‡ object ¦ class ⌈⇒post⌉

Fuller, Matthew and Andrew Goffey. “The Obscure Objects of Object Orientation.” In How To Be a Geek: Essays on the Culture of Software. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
Eastman, Charles. “The Use of Computers Instead of Drawings in Building Design.” AIA Journal, 63, no. 3 (1975): 46-50.
Hui, Yuk. “Digital Objects and Ontologies.” In On the Existence of Digital Objects. University of Minnesota Press, 2016.
Foucault Michel. “Order.” In The Order of Things: an Archaeology of the Human Sciences, 55-63. Routledge. 2002 [1966].
Brown, Bill. “Thing Theory.” Critical Inquiry 28, no. 1 (October 1, 2001): 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1086/449030. [*optional but recommended]

‡ graphics ¦ surfaces ⌈⇒post⌉

Gaboury, Jacob. “Hidden Surface Problems: On the Digital Image as Material Object.” Journal of Visual Culture 14, no. 1 (April 2015): 40–60. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470412914562270.
Halpern, Orit. “Visualizing. Design, Communicative Objectivity, and the Interface.” In Beautiful Data: A History of Vision and Reason since 1945. Durham: Duke University Press Books, 2015.
Kittler, Friedrich A., and Sara Ogger. “Computer Graphics: A Semi-Technical Introduction.” Grey Room (January 1, 2001): 30–45. https://doi.org/10.1162/152638101750172984.
Stiny, George. “What Designers Do That Computers Should.” In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, edited by Malcolm McCullough, William J. Mitchell, and Patrick Purcell, 17-30. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1990.

‡ virtuality ¦ simulation ⌈⇒post⌉

Negroponte, Nicholas. “The Daily Me.” In Being Digital. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf.
Manovich, Lev. “1.3: The Aesthetics of Virtual Worlds: Report From Los Angeles.” CTheory (May 22, 1996): 5-22.
Penny, Simon. “Virtual Reality as the Completion of the Enlightenment Project.” In Culture on the Brink : Ideologies of Technology, edited by Gretchen Bender and Timothy Druckrey, 231–248. Seattle: Bay Press, 1994.
Baudrillard, Jean. “Simulacra and Simulations.” In Jean Baudrillard, Selected Writings, 166-184. edited by Mark Poster. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1988. [*required reading 166-172]
Turkle, Sherry. “What Does Simulation Want?” In Simulation and Its Discontents, 3-9. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 2009.

model ¦ environment ⌈⇒post⌉

March, Lionel, Peter Dickens, and Marcial Echenique. “Models of Environment: Polemic for a Structural Revolution.” Architectural Design 71, no. 5 (1971): 275.
Light, Jennifer. “Taking Games Seriously.” Technology and Culture 49, no. 2 (2008): 347–75.
Galloway, Alexander, and Eugene Thacker. “Protocol, Control, and Networks.” Grey Room (October 1, 2004): 6–29. https://doi.org/10.1162/1526381042464572.
Kolarevic, Branko. “Back to the Future: Performative Architecture.” International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 1 (January 2004): 43–50. https://doi.org/10.1260/1478077041220205.
Moe, Kiel. “Our Model of Models in the Anthropocene.” The Journal of Architecture 21, no. 8 (November 16, 2016): 1299–1311. https://doi.org/10.1080/13602365.2016.1256906.

behaviors ¦ ⌈inter⌉actions ⌈⇒post⌉

Brodey,  Warren M.  “The  Design  of  Intelligent  Environments:  Soft  Architecture.”  Landscape 17, no.1 (1967):  8–12.
Steenson, Molly Wright. “A Theory of Architecture Machines.” In Architectural Intelligence : How Designers and Architects Created the Digital Landscape. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 2017.
Pickering, Andrew. “Cybernetics And The Mangle: Ashby, Beer And Pask.” Social Studies of Science, 2002, 413–437. [* required 413-420 and 429-432]
Suchman, Lucy A. “Interactive Artifacts”. In Human-Machine Reconfigurations: Plans and Situated Actions, 33-51. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Theodore, David. “The First Failure of Man-Computer Symbiosis: The Hospital Computer Project, 1960-1968.” In Computer Architectures: Constructing the Common Ground, 1945-1980, edited by Theodora Vardouli and Olga Touloumi, Routledge (forthcoming).

hardware ¦ matter ⌈⇒post⌉

Cardoso Llach, Daniel. “Software Comes to Matter: Toward a Material History of Computational Design.” Design Issues 31, no. 3 (Summer 2015): 41–54. https://doi.org/10.1162/DESI_a_00337.
Picon, Antoine. “Robots and Architecture: Experiments, Fiction, Epistemology.” Architectural Design 84, no. 3 (May 1, 2014): 54–59. https://doi.org/10.1002/ad.1754.
Knight, Terry, and Theodora Vardouli. “Computational Making,” Design Studies Special Issue: Computational Making 41, part A (2015): 1-7.
Ingold, Tim. “Bringing Things to Life: Creative Entanglements in a World of Materials.” NCRM Working Paper. Realities / Morgan Centre, University of Manchester. 2010.



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